Ethanol Extract of Ganoderma Lucidum Augments Cellular Anti-oxidant Defense through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1
Free radicals are normal metabolites in the process of cell function and are also the perpetrators of cell damage and cell aging. We can't completely eliminate free radicals, but we can enhance the defense of cells against free radicals and reduce the damage to cells. A recent report by School of Medicine of Dong-eui University in South Korea pointed out that the ethanol extract of Ganoderma Lucidum fruit body (mainly triterpenoids) can activate Nrf2 molecules, enhance HO-1 expression, and reduce the damage of free radicals to muscle cells.
Where there is breathing, there are free radicals. This is a normal metabolite during cell function, but it will in turn damage cell components, thereby weakening cell function and accelerating cell death. When the number of degenerating and dead cells in the tissues and organs is increased, and the new cells are too late to substitute, it will affect the function of tissues and organs. In the case of muscle cells, excessive free radicals can affect the function of contraction, cause fatigue, and even the main cause of muscle loss, muscle weakness, and loose skin in middle-aged and elderly people.
The Aging Research Center and the Acupuncture Department of School of Medicine of Dong-eui University in Korea published a report in the Journal of Pharmacopuncture (Korea Journal of Medicines) in March 2016 which found that the ethanol extract of Reishi Mushroom fruiting body (the main ingredient is triterpenes) can reduce the damage of free radicals to muscle cells and further explained how this extract exerts antioxidant effects.
The results showed that the ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body is not only non-toxic to normal cells but also can resolve the oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. Further analysis showed that cells stimulated by hydrogen peroxide not only produced a large number of free radicals but also damaged DNA in the cells. The ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body can enhance the expression of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1, first type heme oxidase) through the "activated Nrf2 transcription factor", thereby exerting anti-oxidation and protecting the survival of cells.
As additional HO-1 inhibitor (zinc protoporphyrin IX) significantly weakens the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body ethanol extract on cells, resulting in increased free radicals and decreased cell number, it can be confirmed that the antioxidant effect of Ganoderma fruiting body ethanol extract is closely related to the activation of Nrf2 and the expression of HO-1.
HO-1 is a kind of enzyme widely existing in cytomicrosomes with antioxidant effect. It is an important defence mechanism when cells encounter external pressure and stimulation.Nrf2, on the other hand, is an intracellular transcription factor sensitive to redox, and its activation can initiate various defence mechanisms against oxidative damage, including HO-1. Therefore, how to effectively activate Nrf2 molecules and increase the expression of HO-1 is regarded as an important strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases and anti-aging by the scientific community. Myoblast, on the other hand, is a precursor cell to muscle tissue, and is the source of our long muscles.
Therefore, the ethanol extract of the Lingzhi fruiting body enhances the antioxidant effect of the myoblast cells through the Nrf2/HO-1 pipeline, which is worthy of our expectation.